Mongolian Foreign Policy: The story of seeking the third neighbor


2019-04-23 10:00 GMT+8


The sequel to No. 69 (1121)

The Third Neighbor initiative was continued after World War II. Although the Soviet Union from the north warned Mongolia to avoid having a third neighbor because of being a small country that was under the shadow of Russia. It was also possible to call on the approval of many other countries. It was seen at the end of Stalin's speech. He said:

When you are recognized internationally, your country is officially independent. There is nothing wrong with pursuing it. First of all, you should declare your independence from China. If your independence is accepted by China and is admitted by other countries, you will be able to attract the Inner Mongols, Tsakhar, and Barag. Then, they will know that Mongolia's true independence is in your hands.

You will be able to declare your independence from China when you are strong in the state. If so, imperialist nations such as Japan and England will try to accept you at your own initiative.

It should be noted that the Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference has played an important role in the third neighbor's policy of Mongolia. As a result of the following events, the People's Republic of Mongolia started to form an independent state as a de-jure in 1946. The Republic of China (ROC) recognized the independence of Mongolia on January 05, 1946 and established diplomatic relations on January 13, 1946. As for the Soviet Union, its de-facto approval was transformed into de-jure in 1945. It was the beginning of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance that two sides signed in Moscow on February 19, 1946.

From that point on, Mongolia returned to pursue its 1912 aspiration and began to seek diplomatic relations. It was an attempt to expand to a third neighbor.

The People's Republic of Mongolia has requested the Secretary-General of the United Nations to join the UN on April 19, 1946, and was invited to the UN Security Council meeting on August 28, 1945. At the meeting, British delegation Alexander George Montagu Cadogan made the following statement about Mongolia:

Mongolian People's Republic has diplomatic relations with only two countries, therefore, it does not have enough experience in international relations.

After a while, the Chief of Mongolia’s diplomatic office Tsedenbal Yumjaa opposed the statement at party activist meeting in Ulaanbaatar. He said:

The size of international relations is not a condition that can be considered to be a member of the United Nations or whether it is a necessity to be admitted membership in the UN.

The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) meeting in 1948 discussed the issue of Mongolia's foreign relations in a wider frame for the first time. At that time, they noted that the party had the right direction of foreign policy. After World War II, the diplomatic relations between China and the Soviet Union was a major achievement for Mongolia. Afterward, it declared diplomatic relations with North Korea in 1948, and Albania in 1949. The number has increased to 12 after five years. It was a huge advance. For the number to reach two-digits, Mongolian politicians had suffered 40 years of torture, and at that time, they were thinking of a third neighbor.

Yalta Conference has played an important role in the third neighbor's policy of Mongolia

There was a speech at MPRP XII Congress (1954.11.19). "We are now marking peace, harmony and mutual respect all over the borders of the People's Republic." They considered the relationship with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the People's Republic of China (PRC), and the DPRK and remarked,

The Mongolian People's Republic is a strong part of the composition of the powerful democratic camps, with the establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Democratic Republics of the Europe, including People's Republic of Poland, People's Republic of Botany, Czech Republic, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, Buryatia Republic, Roman Republic, Republic of Angola and the German Democratic Republic. We also maintain diplomatic relations with the Republic of Vietnam and focus on strengthening the relations.

In the mid-1950s, Mongolia had no idea of a diplomatic relationship beyond the socialist countries of the democracies, but in 1956, the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) declared the possibility of peaceful coexistence with countries of diverse people. The Mongolian Government has  started to seek a third neighbor without any hesitation.

The fact that “more than half the population of the humanity” and “the four continents of the population” were read as part of the ruling party's congressional speeches shows that diplomacy was being considered intently. The practice of declaring diplomatic relations as an important developmental progression, as it was known for its importance, continued for 30 years and remained until the 19th Congress of the MPRP (1986).

1958.03.17 - Part 1 of the "International Situation and People's Republic of Mongolia" report of Damba Dash's speech on the MPRP's conference evaluated the development of friendly relations with 12 countries including Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Democratic Germany, DPRK, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia. It read,

We declared diplomatic relations with the Republic of India, Burma and the Republic of Korea, and the Republic of Indonesia, complying the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, known as the Panchsheel Treaty, the base of the relationship between countries with different systems. Therefore, the People's Republic of Mongolia now has diplomatic relations with more than half the human population. The Mongolian People's Republic is ready to establish equal relations with other countries who are willing to maintain a further relationship with our country in order to ensure equality and mutual respect for the principle of peaceful coexistence without regard to social and political structures." However, the non-resident ambassadors were reported as diplomatic delegations. This is due to the lack of practice in international relations. In 1958, Mongolia began diplomatic relations with 15 countries.

Diplomacy in the principle of peaceful coexistence, regardless of social and political structures, has expanded considerably since the 1960s. In 1959, after the United Nations announced the 1960s as the "African Year," it established diplomatic relations with Guinea, Cambodia, and Cuba. In 1961.07.03, the MPRP congress said, "Now the People's Republic of Mongolia has diplomatic relations with 21 countries in the four continents."

To be continued...


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